Science and Technology In Medicine Book Cover
The cover illustration shows Dr. Georg Haas supervising one of the first dialysis treatments, in 1926 (from p.399 of the book)
Hard cover
ISBN: 0-387-27874-5
580 pages with more
than 1100 illustrations
Size: 11'' x 8.7''
January 2006
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NobelMuseumExhibitionThe Exhibition Medicine from Art to Science, based on the illustrations of the book, that opened at the Nobel Museum in Stockholm March 28 2006 has moved to the University of Linköping in Linköping.
It opened on August 31 2006 as part of the celebration of the 20-th aniversary of establishing the Hälsouniversitetet.

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» The 99 Landmark publications at a glance
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The 99 landmark publications at a glance
A complete list of the 99 landmark publications. Each linked to an image illustrating some of the historical context of the discovery reported.





1. 1528 Dürer
Mathematics applied to human proportions and to spatial representation of the body.
 
2. 1575 Paré
New surgical methods and devices including artificial body parts and prosthesis.
 
3. 1590 Paracelsus
The introduction of chemistry in medicine, the discovery of the effects of ether.
 
4. 1603 Santorio
The first use of quantitative measurements for diagnostics in medicine.
 
5. 1604 Kepler
The mechanism of image formation and vision correctly explained for the first time.
 
6. 1614 Santorio
The first quantitative study of the fluid balance of the body.
 
7. 1625 Santorio
Introduction of the quantitative measurement of temperature in medicine.
 
8. 1652 Van Helmont
The first time gases are named and the first description of carbon dioxide.
 
9. 1655 Borel
The first publication describing the compound microscope and its use in medicine.
 
10. 1665 Wren
Introduction of controlled techniques of infusion.
 
11. 1667 Hooke
The first systematic study of the physiology of artificial ventilation.
 
12. 1680 Borelli
The first study of the mechanics of movements and the heart seen as a mechanical pump.
 
13. 1684 Kircher
Early study of the generation and propagation of sound and its medical use.
 
14. 1684 Boyle
The first work devoted entirely to the biochemistry of blood.
 
15. 1709 Hauksbee
Introducing apparatus for studying electrostatics, electric discharges, and light.
 
16. 1719 Leeuwenhoek
Microscopic investigations leading to many new discoveries in medicine and biology.
TOP
17. 1727 Hales
The first accurate blood pressure measurement and about gases in chemistry and physiology.
 
18. 1738 Bernoulli
A theory of gases and fluids, and the first calculation of the work performed by the heart.
 
19. 1748 Jallabert
The first use of electricity for treatment of paralysis.
 
20. 1756 Black
The discovery and properties of carbon dioxide.
 
21. 1777 Scheele
The discovery of oxygen and many other new elements and organic acids.
 
22. 1777 Priestley
The discovery of oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and the composition of water.
 
23. 1788 Kite
The first demonstration of electric resuscitation with artificial ventilation.
 
24. 1789 Lavoisier
Introducing the modern science of chemistry and the study of oxygen uptake in man.
 
25. 1791 Kempelen
The first apparatus for producing speech sounds for letters and words.
 
26. 1800 Volta
The invention of the battery and the electric stimulation of hearing.
 
27. 1800 Herschel
Infrared radiation discovered.
 
28. 1800 Davy
The properties of nitrous oxide and a proposal for its use in surgery.
 
29. 1806 Sertürner
The discovery, isolation and properties of morphine and other alkaloids.
 
30. 1806 Legendre The first use of a statistical method, the least squares technique, in experimental science.  
31. 1819 Laennec
The invention of the stethoscope and the introduction of auscultation as a clinical tool.
TOP
32. 1822 Fourier
A powerful new mathematical method applicable to problems in science and medicine.
 
33. 1825 Labarraque
The introduction of chlorine solutions as a disinfectant.
 
34. 1827 Civiale
The development of a new device—the lithotriptor—for crushing bladder stones.
 
35. 1828 Poiseuille
The mercury manometer introduced for blood pressure measurement.
 
36. 1835 Dumas
A new theory of chemical reactions leading to the correct formula for chloroform.
 
37. 1837 Magnus
The first quantitative blood gas determinations.
 
38. 1839 Daguerre
The invention of photography—photomicroscopy—and its early uses in medicine.
 
39. 1842 Liebig
The application of organic chemistry to the basic life processes.
 
40. 1842 Doppler
The Doppler effect discovered.
 
41. 1846 Hutchinson
The invention of the spirometer, and its use for lung function diagnosis.
 
42. 1848 Du Bois-Reymond
Exploration of the physiology of electric conduction of nerves and muscles.
 
43. 1850 Helmholtz
The first measurement of the velocity of nerve impulses.
 
44. 1851 Weber
Blood flow explained using a new wave theory.
 
45. 1852 Helmholtz
The invention of the ophthalmoscope.
 
46. 1856 Fick
The first general overview of the role of physics in medicine.
TOP
47. 1858 Snow
The introduction of the scientific approach to anaesthesia.
 
48. 1858 Czermak
The invention and introduction of laryngoscopy as a useful clinical tool.
 
49. 1862 Kirchhoff
The discovery of spectral analysis for the determination of the chemical elements.
 
50. 1862 Pasteur
Demonstration of airborne bacteria and the introduction of the germ theory of disease.
 
51. 1862 Hoppe-Seyler
Haemoglobin discovered and its properties and spectra studied.
 
52. 1863 Marey
Measurement and registration of the arterial pulse and other physiologycal parameters.
 
53. 1866 Mendel
The laws of heredity explained.
 
54. 1867 Lister
The introduction of antiseptic surgery.
 
55. 1868 Maxwell
Control theory established as a science.
 
56. 1870 Fick
A new method for measuring the cardiac output.
 
57. 1871 Trendelenburg
A new technique and device for intubation and anaesthesia.
 
58. 1875 Voit
Accurate apparatus for measuring gas exchange to assess the utilisation of foodstuff.
 
59. 1878 Bert
Physiology at high and low pressures. The dissociation curve of oxygen established.
 
60. 1879 Nitze
The invention and development of cystoscopy and related techniques.
 
61. 1881 Koch
The foundation of the science of bacteriology and modern sterilisation techniques.
TOP
62. 1884 Arrhenius
The explanation of the properties of electrolytes.
 
63. 1885 Van’t Hoff
A theory for understanding osmotic pressure and chemical equilibrium.
 
64. 1886 Abbe
A new theory and its implementation for much improved optical microscopy.
 
65. 1887 Waller
The demonstration of electric signals from the skin produced by the beat of the heart.
 
66. 1889 Curie
The discovery of piezoelectricity and its use in sensors and transducers.
 
67. 1895 Röntgen
The discovery of X-rays.
 
68. 1896 Riva-Rocci
The introduction of the modern technique of blood pressure measurement.
 
69. 1897 Thomson
The discovery of the electron and the development of the Mass-spectroscope.
 
70. 1898 Curie
The discovery of radioactivity and new radioactive elements.
 
71. 1902 Einthoven
The construction of the modern ECG recorder.
 
72. 1903 Fischer
The discovery of the hypnotic effects of barbiturates and the study of purines.
 
73. 1903 Tswett
The invention of the technique of chromatography.
 
74. 1906 Fischer
The syntheses of amino-acids and peptides.
 
75. 1910 Ehrlich
The foundation of modern chemotherapy, the discovery and clinical use of Salvarsan.
 
76. 1913 Laue
X-ray diffraction from a crystal observed and explained for the first time.
TOP
77. 1914 Abel
Successful dialysis is demonstrated in dogs.
 
78. 1920 Staudinger
A theory is proposed for the mechanism of polymerisation, and applied to synthesis rubber.
 
79. 1922 Aston
The development of masspectrometry and the discovery of the isotopes.
 
80. 1929 Carothers
The invention and production of industrial polymers, particularly polyamide (nylon).
 
81. 1931 Van Slyke
The first exhaustive review of clinical chemistry as used in medicine.
 
82. 1933 Zworykin
The invention of the television and the scanning electron microscope.
 
83. 1938 Ruska
The development of the transmission electron microscope.
 
84. 1941 Martin
The invention of partition chromatography and gas chromatography.
 
85. 1945 Eckert, Mauchly
ENIAC, the first programmable electronic computer.
 
86. 1946 Kolff
The introduction of the artificial kidney and other artificial organs.
 
87. 1951 Engström
The first device for volume controlled artificial ventilation suitable for long term treatment.
 
88. 1953 Watson, Crick
The structure of the DNA molecule established.
 
89. 1953 Fant
Major advance in electronic speech analysis and synthesis.
 
90. 1954 Edler, Hertz
Introducing ultrasound echo cardiography.
 
91. 1959 Elmqvist, Senning
The presentation of the first fully implanted pacemaker.
TOP
92. 1960 Maiman
The description of the first LASER and its mode of operation.
 
93. 1969 Brånemark
Titanium implants in medicine and dentistry.
 
94. 1971 Damadian
Discovery and apparatus for differentiating biological tissue using NMR techniques.
 
95. 1973 Hounsfield
The inventions of X-ray CT-imaging.
 
96. 1973 Lauterbur
A new general method of imaging biological tissue exemplified by the MRI technique.
 
97. 1974 Wagner, West
A new method of analysing the ventilation and perfusion conditions in the lungs.
 
98. 1974 Kahn, Cerf
A generally useful internet protocol for communication between data networks.
 
99. 1975 Phelps
The invention of the modern PET imaging technique.